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Qualitative Predicitons and Potential RemediesMonier Williams, in his "A Sanskrit-English Dictionary", published in 1872 by Oxford University Press gives the meaning of vivaha (marriage) as vi-vaaha - to conduct home, to take as wife. Marriage is referred to as a specific 'samskara',  Vivaha, is the word used for the marriage rituals, Vaha meaning to carry. That is to say, it goes on for ever, a permanent bond that should go on for next seven births. In all the religions, marriage is a celebration for the whole family and there are rituals and mantras, associated with that. But there are no celebration for divorce and separation.  World over, everybody aspires to have a permanent relationship to bring up the family. Marriage is a social institution. "It is a union of persons of different gender to fulfill their 'personal desires'  and to have progeny, with social acceptability.  A marriage is a legal, physical and moral union of husband and wife to establish a family. The ritual of marriage gives public acknowledgment with the blessings of well wishers. Marriage has a religious orientation where all the family members rejoice.

In a typical Hindu marriage, bride and bride-groom take an oaths before the sacred fire to the effect that their hearts are united and they have become permanent companions. धर्मे च अर्थे च कामे च मोक्षे च नाति चरामि। "In the matters of living (dharma), in financial matters, in fulfilling the desires and in spiritual progress, I will not move away from you". This is the mantra used in the process of Kanyadana. Mainly a Hindu marriage consists of Kanayadana (expression of intension of marriage), Mangalya dharana (wearing of a gold ornament called Mangalya.  Mangala means for good), Panigrahana (holding hand) and Saptapadi (going round the holly fire, seven times).  The bridegroom takes certain oaths called Ubhaya Vrata at the beginning on marriage to assure, he will not do anything hazardous ............................ like getting soaked in rain, climbing of trees and harboring suspicion.  While tying Mangalya, he says, मांगल्यं तंतुनानेन मम जीवन हेतुना। कंठे बन्धामि सुभगे त्वं जीव शरदां शतं॥  "I tie this Mangalya in the thread, for my life.  Let you live happily for a hundred years".

The Hindu Marriage Act, Section 437 regards marriage as complete and irrevocable when the 7th step of Saptapadi is complete. Saptapadi symbolizes the journey of life husband and wife travel hand in hand, like in the song 'Angelo' by the group 'Brotherhood of Man'. Unlike in the song, they do not run away,  hand in hand but share their happiness with their families!  इष एकपदी भव। ऊर्जे द्विपदी भव। रायस्पोषाय त्रिपदी भव। मयो भव्याय चतुष्पदी भव। प्रजाभ्यः पंचपदी भव। ऋतुभ्यः षट्पदी भव। सखा सप्तपदी भव॥ "Let the first step be for food (household or family). Let the second step be for strength (physical, mental and spiritual). Let the third step be for money (wealth and means of living). Let the fourth step be for fulfillment of desires (knowledge, happiness, mutual love, respect, understanding and faith).  Let the fifth step be for children (responsible, healthy). Let the sixth step be for ritu (time, lifespan,  to enjoy life in respective seasons, to conduct religious duties properly as per time-schedule). Let the seventh step be for friendship (loyalty and companionship)". 

There is a subhashita in Sanskrit. रुणानुबंध रूपेण पतिपत्निसुतालयः। "It is fortune (anubandha) or misfortune (rina) that brings husband, wife, son and house".  This article is intended for matching horoscopes for marriage  an everlasting and perpetual arrangement and NOT for 'living-in' relationships which do not have sanction in any religion.  In all the religions, wedlock is highly respected and recognised. Any temporary relationship is shunned upon.  All most of the mammals - elephants, monkeys and human beings and some birds of course, desire to set up  families than a casual relationship. Any marriage - be it an arranged marriage, a marriage with religious rituals, a registered marriage or a marriage solemnized by a rationalist, the desire is to Qualitative Predicitons and Potential Remediesbe husband and wife for ever. None of the divorced people I have met, had married just for fun but wanted to live in marriage forever. Divorce does not bring happiness, it casts doubts on human relation. I do not mean the man or woman should remain within marriage, when their life, health and well being are threatened.  Yet, I abhor divorces for flimsy reasons, which lacks human concern for each other. Manu smruthi catalogues various types of marriages including rakshasa vivaha (abducting the girl for marriage). Maharshi Manu has mentioned about single women and separated women but he does not classify types of divorces.  There is only one type - and that certainly brings sorrow. It is worthy to be slow and patient in marriage and also in divorce. So, called love-proposals are made by young fellows to each other, without much thought, these days. Young generation has great sense of love, though they don't read Abhignan Shakuntala or Romeo & Juliet!  But, they know how to throw an acid bulb. In a metro city, a man married and moved with his wife to US.  In three months, the marriage fell apart, it is easy to get separated in US. The girl came back to India.  After some time, when the boy was in India for some reason, they received divorce certificates. Both of them felt sorry, on the 4th day after divorce they married in a religious ashram (a reputed, indeed).  After a week the husband called on the girl, to make arrangement to return to US.  The girl declined to go with her married- divorced- remarried husband, as she was engaged to another person! They know not the sanctity of marriage....... or divorce. When a marriage proposal is made, the parents make elaborate enquiries about family background, character, physical features, education, financial status, profession, defects and diseases running in the family. It is not wise to jump to conclusions by what one comes across in self-appraisals, favorably disposed in matrimonial columns and sites.  In marriage,  the parties should not be self-centered but should think of other members of the family.  A new girl who enters the family is not merely a wife but she also plays the role of daughter-in-law, sister-in-law etc., As far as possible, everybody's interest should be respected.  Marriages based on fascination (misjudged as great love), sympathy, ideology to create a new world order or for wealth do not survive, but the ones with  love, adoptability and mutual concern will go on forever.  Marriage does not guarantee a 100% security but it is far more better than in 'living in' relationships, where one lives under constant fear that the person may go away.

Nobody is perfect and hence no marriage is  absolute success.  Through analysis of horoscopes, one will know what future holds for them.  This is where the astrologer comes into picture.  Many people in India as well as the Western World seek astrologer's guidance. Background, cast, religion or geographical area do not matter. Matching in Western Astrology is done using sun-sign, the chart is made in sayana system.  The principle is that earth tatwa girl will be happy with another air tatwa boy.  Only fire and water are not matched. This is similar to bhoota koota matching where tatwas (elements) of rasi or stars are considered. In Chinese astrology, we have a cycle of 12 years, named after certain animals like rat, ox, tiger etc., similar to Hindu sixty year cycle beginning with Prabhava.  The matching is done with reference to animal behavior. For example,  person born in Gregorian year of 1990 belongs to Horse year. If he/she marries a person born in Tiger year (1986 ) or Dog year (1982), married life will be most successful.  Marrying a rat (1984) would prove to be disastrous.  This is similar to yoni koota in Hindu astrology.

There is a subtle difference between a Western and Indian astrologer. Like general matching of a Western astrologer, we too have list of 'paniki raadu' (not workable) stars, many short cuts and several deaf and dumb rules.  A wise Western astrologer further examines  mutual positions of  significators of marriage - whether they are in squares, trines, angles etc.,  He will make individual analysis of both charts before he pronounces his judgment.  Most of the Indian astrologers use a ready reckoner,  kuja dosha and a list of 'always bad' stars of girls, like Moola. Some 30 years ago, one client told me, I spend lot of time on matching charts, but his expert 'guru' simply examines the charts for few seconds.  Even now, I do not skip through the charts, I have not learnt the lesson, my client wanted!  Indian astrologers, I think, should be more inquisitive, more elaborate in examining the charts, instead of quoting a nadi dosha, a kuja dosha or a kalasarpa yoga.  In the mean time, my western counterpart should develop more tools based on Indian system.

Honestly, I do not go with all the jargon of astrology but, I base my arguments on valuable dictums.  There are delicious fruits as well as poisonous ones. We do not eat all of a mango, we know what to eat and what to throw away.  As we proceed further, we will come across deviations and exceptions. We will also explore why some marriages, judged as getting 30/38 marks miserably failed. I do not intend,  you should start matching right after Part-I of this article or open another "Vedic  Research Institute for matching."  Hold on, till you read all the articles in the series. A example ready reckoner is here, though other panchangas give slightly variable values.  As the matching is considered between stars and rasis, one need to know the stars of the boy and girl.  Nine padas of stars go into a rasi, so we can know the rasi of the person, if we know the star pada.  In these tables, you will find a number where the star and pada of the girl and the boy will intersect.  If that number is more than 18, marriage can be agreed.  The reckoner is prepared considering various concepts in both girl's and boy's chart. Matching is done from girl's star and not from boy's star. Before consulting the reckoner, one should make sure that the star stated by the party is correct.  You can verity the accuracy of given data using any on-line soft ware and ensure that same ayanamsha (or, say soft ware) is used to make both the charts of boy and girl. Depending on various yard sticks used by panchanga makers,  the total marks obtained may differ from one panchanga to other. This over simplified x and y-axis matching has brought disgrace to astrology - many good matches are being rejected and wrong matching are made. You might have seen disgruntled divorces saying, "Matching was approved by the Panditji with 25 marks".  It is prudent then, to delve a bit deeper and find out the compatibility based on various principles that went into a ready made tables. The birth data should be checked by preparing a full horoscope. We should wade through the shallow interpretations which are at times used for convenience sake and also rich and clear directives. The best way to decide which are dependable and which are not, hinges largely on personal experience - unbiased and inquisitive.  "మా గురుగారు ఇట్ల ఉపదేశించారు -  Maa guru garu itla upadeshincharu" principle (my guru preached this) will not go a long way. With due respect to one's guru, the astrologer should set sail to find the applicability, limitations and exceptions with diligence.

In North India, Ashta koota method is adopted to match the charts. Each Koota is assigned certain gunas (marks). The eight kootas are  Varna koota -1 mark Vashya koota 2 marks, Tara koota (Dina koota) -3 marks, Yoni koota -  marks, Graha Maitri koota (Rashyadipathi koota) 5 marks, Gana koota- 6 marks, Bha koota or Bhoota koota (Rasi koota) 7 marks, Nadi koota 8 marks.  The maximum gunas assigned for all these kootas are 36.  If more than 18 marks are obtained, the match is considered as suitable. In South India, there are additional four kootas which do not carry any marks!  This method is called Dasha koota method which should be precisely called dwadasha kootas. Let us explore the kootas individually.

1) Varna (Jaati) Koota :The unit of agreement carries 1 mark.  Varna has no  relevance to caste one is born. Jala tatwa rasis (kataka, vrischika and meena) represent Brahmin, man intent on learning.  Agni tatwa rasis (mesha, simha and dhanus) represent Kshatriya, a soldier.  Pritvi tatwa rasis (vrishabha, kanya and makara) represent business class, Vaishya. Vayu tatwa rasis (mithuna, tula and kumbha) indicate Shudra, a servant. Higher varna of girl is not matched to a lower varna star of the boy.The rasis belonging to same varna are given one mark.  In case of mis-match,  the flaw gets cancelled if rasi lord of boy is of higher varna than that of  the girl.  Guru and shukra are Brahmins, Ravi and kuja are Kshatriyas, Chandra is vaishya and Budha and Shani are shudras. Some consider budha as vaishya. Higher varna of girl is not matched to a lower varna boy. The varna koota based on rasis is more prevalent than with the stars.

Stars were classified as:

Brahmin :  Aswini, Punarvasu, Hasta, Moola and Purvabhadra
Kshatriya : Bharani, Pushya, Chitra, Purvashadha and Uttarabhadra
Vaishya : Kritika, Aslesha, Swati, Utarrashadha and Revati
Shudra:  Rohini, Magha, Vishakha and Shravana
Anulomaja (born of high class father and low class mother): Mrigashira, Purvaphalguni, Anuradha and Dhanista
Pratilomaja (born of low class father and high class mother): Arudra, Uttaraphalguni, Jyestha and Shatabisha 

Qualitative Predicitons and Potential Remedies

A successful (Eka nakshatra) marriage

2) Vasya Koota: This koota implies mutual love and attachment, considering natural attraction or repulsion between rasis. The rasis for both the boy and girl should agree with each other. This confers mutual affection between couple. The unit of agreement carries 2 marks. In South India, the signs dhanus and makara are not bifurcated  and merely the signs having affinity are grouped together. The North Indian method is more accurate in classifying the signs as chatushpada etc.,

Chatuspada rasis are: mesha, vrishabha, second half of dhanus and first half of makara; Nara rasis are: Mithuna, kanya, tula and first half of dhanus; Jalachara rasis are: Kataka, second half of makara, kumbha and meena.  Vrischika is keeta rasi while simha is vanachara rasi. That is to say, if the rasi is is  dhanus or makara, one should know whether chandra's position is in first half or second half of that sign.  If both rasis fall into the same group, then this agreement gets 2 marks. 

In South India totally different groups are grouped together as follows: For Mesha - Simha and Vrischika are vashya rasis.  For Vrishabha - Kataka and tula are vashya rasis.  For Mithuna - Kanya is vashya rasi. For Kataka - Vrischika and Dhanus are vashyas. For Simha rasi - Makara and kanya are vashyas.  For Vrischika  - Kataka is vashya rasi. For Dhanus - Meena. For Makara -Mesha and Kumbha are vashya rasis.  For Kumbha, mesha is vashyarasi and for Meena, makara is vashya. 

3) Dina koota [Tara koota in North India]: Dina Koota is supposed to  ensure healthy partnership, all comforts and a long life. The star of the boy  is counted from that of the girl and is divided  by 9. If the remainder is 2, 4, 6, 8 or 0 [Note: 27th star though gives zero when divided by 9, it  is rejected  in North India] the agreement  is considered as good. The number of units of compatibility assigned to this koota is 3. If the star of girl  is Rohini and that of the boy is Hasta, the count gives 10 and when divided by 9 leaves 1 as reminder and hence no agreement,  whereas if boy's star is Kritika, the 27th, it is considered as good in South but rejected in North. I do not see any reason to reject 27th star.

The matching should be done only from girl's star to boy's. Matching vice versa or taking average of 2 of them lack the sanction of classical works. It is supposed that 5th and 7th lords' dasha / bhukti are supposed to be bad (which is not so in actual practice). This seems to be reason for this interpretation. The dasha results depend on ownership, placement etc., and such periods of 5th and 7th lords need not be bad. Much importance need not be given to 7th star (vadha tara).  At times the 2nd star falls in 12/2 position in rasi.  This disposition causes obstacles in the married life.  Instead of depending of this koota 7th, 2nd and 4th houses in the charts should be examined.

Another school of thought stipulates that if the birth star of boy is 10th from girl's, only 1st pada should be rejected, rest can be admitted. If it is 5th star, 4th pada; if it is 7th star, 3rd pada; if it is 19th star, 1st, 3rd and 4th padas are rejected. If the boy's star is in 88th navamsha (in 10th house) or 108 (the last pada of previous star), such match is rejected. However, the navamsha interpretation is not in practice now. When the star of both girl and boy are same, there is obviously no marks under dina koota.

Ekanakshatra janana vichara: If the birth star of both boy and girl happens to be the same, then Dina koota is not matched.  Some astrologers consider  that Rohini, Arudhra, Maka, Vishaka, Sravana, Hasta, Uttarashada, Revathi agree. Mrigasira, Aswani, Krithika, Punarvasu, Pushya, Uttara, Chitra, Uttarashada, Purvashada stars also agree but are somewhat stand second. Remaining stars are considered as mismatch. When the stars are the same, some astrologers recommend that girl's rasi should be prior to boy's.  Example: Girls should be of vrishabha and boy should be of mithuna when the star is Mrigasira. In cases where the two stars are same, it is good that the signs of the boy leads that of girl.

When the stars are the same, both boy and girl belong to the same rasi or have 12/2 relationship with each other's rasi. When the rasi is same, the transit effects are intensified on both the partners at the same time, for both chandrastama (chandra in 8th from rasi) happens at the same time and also they may be experiencing the same dasha, depending on the dasha balance at birth. In my humble opinion, ekanakshatra does not call for rejection. One should not forget the good effects of transit are also magnified when the star (only when they fall in the same rasi).  Further, the role of the planets in dasha depends on the lagna in individual charts and not on rasi. If both boy and girl are level headed, they can go ahead with marriage but they should be appraised that they suffer moods swings at the same time. Provided other considerations are compatible, 12/2 position of rasis can be matched. I do not subscribe to good or bad ekanakshatra school of thought.  Next

Placement holds the key!

Bhagawan Sri Adishankara bless us all

Qualitative Predicitons & Potential Remedies

History of astrology
Combustion of planets

Indian and western astrology - the differences
Mantras for Kuja

Shanti kriyas for planets
Leo (Simha) personality

Twin births -validity of astrology
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